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A Mortgage Loan is a type of loan that can be used for the purchase of land, home, and asset or property. Most individuals get mortgage loans and use them to buy a housing unit or refinance and renovate a house.

Individuals that are not capable of paying the whole costs of a property, specifically a home are usually the ones who get this type of loan.

According to the 2021 US Mortgage Market Statistics: Home Loan Originations, the total housing debt of the United States after the second quarter of 2019 is $13.86 trillion. It means that millions of individuals get mortgage loans to assist them to purchase or renovating their respective homes.

With the mortgage loan, individuals can buy or purchase a house even if they do not have enough money for it.

Lenders will be the ones who will provide financial assistance to buy the property. As it is under the mortgage loan, the individual is required to pay the financial assistance with a specific interest.

There’s a wide variety of mortgage loans that are available throughout the United States. These can be from the U.S. federal governments or private sectors and institutions.  

However, the main objective of mortgage loans is to assist borrowers to have a decent and safe home while making profits for lenders.

The Borrowers

Borrowers are individuals that seek financial help through loans to buy homes or property. They can find the available mortgage loan that will suit them.

Borrowers must meet the eligibility rules of lenders before applying for loans.

The lenders

Lenders are the financial institutions that provide money for the borrowers under mortgage loans. They can be banks, credit unions, or mortgage companies as long as they are capable of providing financial assistance for the loan of an individual.

Every lender has its rules and regulations with its loan. They also have the right to choose their borrowers based on their eligibility rules.

How Mortgage Loan Work

A mortgage loan is just similar to other loans, it’s just different from the purpose and some aspects. When a borrower found an available lender and successfully applied for the loan,  the lender will discuss the loan terms with the borrower and both parties must agree to it.  

After the process, the lender will give the needed financial amount to the borrower to buy or renovate the home.

Based on the agreement, the monthly payment will start for the borrower to pay the loan amount with its interest for a specific period.

However, the property is considered collateral in a mortgage loan. If the borrower did not make the monthly payment for the mortgage, the lender will take over the possession of the property and has the right to sell it to another individual.

Once the borrower successfully finishes the payments, the property will no longer be collateral. The property becomes collateral to secure the loan of the lender.

Types of Mortgage Loans

Mortgage Loans come within different types. Refer to the list below for the types of mortgage loans.

Fixed-Rate Mortgages

Fixed-Rate Mortgages are commonly known as Traditional Mortgages are loans with a fixed and specific loan interest rate. The interest rate from the first monthly payment will stay the same up to the end of the loan payment. This is one of the great and most common loans as the monthly payments are clear.

Adjustable-Rate Mortgages

Adjustable-Rate Mortgages are also known as variable-rate mortgages or floating mortgages. It is a type of mortgage loan where there is a change in the interest rate throughout the life of the loan.

The initial interest rate is fixed for a specific period and it will change after that. However, the initial rates are less than or below the market mortgage rates. Interest rates from the said loan type can change monthly or annually. Adjustable-Rate Mortgages also have limits for the increase of interest rate.

Interest-Only Loans

Interest-Only Loans allow borrowers to pay only for the loan interest for the first years of loan payment.

However, it will be opposed for the following years as it will  include the principal amount of the loan. Interest-Only Loans are made from a specific  period.

Reverse Mortgages

Reverse Mortgages allow individuals that are 62 years old and above to turn their home equity into cash. Beneficiaries can borrow the financial amount as the same as the value of their respective homes.

Moreover, this loan type does not require beneficiaries to have a monthly payment. Reverse Mortgages end when the homeowner dies, moves from another home, or sells the home.

Available Mortgage Loan Programs

There’s a wide variety of mortgage loan programs that are available throughout the United States. Most of these programs are handled by the different agencies of the federal government such as the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, the US  Department of Agriculture, and the US Department of Veteran Affairs.

Each loan program has its rules, eligibility requirements, and loan terms. See the details below for the available mortgage loan programs in the United States.

FHA Loans

FHA Loans are loans that are backed by the Federal Housing Administration. It primarily provides mortgage loans for low-income individuals that need to buy or improve a home. FHA loans require a lower down payment and credit score rather than other mortgage loans. Below are some of the FHA loans.

  • Traditional Mortgage
  • Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM)
  • FHA 203(k) Improvement Loan
  • FHA Energy Efficient Mortgage
  • Section 245(a) Loan
USDA Loans

USDA Loans are loans that are administered by the US Department of Agriculture aiming to provide mortgage loans for needy individuals. These loans are guaranteed by the USDA Rural Housing Service Agency.

It prioritizes low-income individuals that meet the requirements for the loan. USDA Loans offer competition for individuals to maintain loan payment stability. Check the following programs of the USDA Loans below.

  • Single-Family Housing Direct Home Loans
  • Single-Family Housing Home Loan Guarantees
  • Single-Family Housing Repair Loans and Grants
  • Rural Housing Site Loans
  • Multifamily Housing Direct Loans
  • Multifamily Housing Rental Assistance
VA Loans

VA Loans are mortgage programs that are created and implemented by the US  Department of Veteran Affairs. It prioritizes veterans who want to purchase a new home. VA Loans have a broad range of programs, see the following details below.

  • Home Purchase Loans
  • Cash-Out Refinance Loans
  • Interest Rate Reduction Refinance Loan
  • Native American Direct Loan
Conventional Loans

Conventional Loans are also known as private mortgage loans as they are not issued by the federal government of the United States. These loans are supervised by private institutions, private lenders, banks, credit unions, and mortgage companies.

Some of the mortgage loans are guaranteed by the Federal National Mortgage  Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation.

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